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xi                               CLASSIFICATION OF DEER                         291
book, into which its lining membrane is raised. Finally there is
the abomasum, out of which proceeds the small intestine.
Garrod has observed that the chamber of the stomach which
varies most among the Pecora is the psalterium. This chamber
is specially large in £>os, and particularly small in the Antelopes
Ndnnotragus and Gephcdophus. But its variation relates more
especially to the folds of its mucous membrane. These folds are
of varying lengths and have a definite arrangement There may
be as many as five sets of laminae of regular depths. The most
simple psalterium is that of Cephalophus, where there are only
two sets of laminae of different sizes, a deeper set and a very much
shallower set; this form is termed by G-arrod " duplicate." Most
common is the " quadruplicate " arrangement, with four sets of
laminae of differing depths. In all Pecora the liver is but little
divided by fissures.
Fam. 6. Oervidae.—The Deer tribe is a very extensive one,
and, with the exception of Africa and Australia, world-wide in
The Deer are absolutely distinguished from, all other Huminant
animals by the existence of antlers, which are invariably present
in the male sex, save in the aberrant genera Moschus and Hydro-
pot es ; in the Reindeer alone are antlers present in both sexes.
The general characters of these appendages have been dealt with
on a former page (p. 200), where they are compared to, or rather
contrasted with, the horns of the Bovidae. These antlers* so
characteristic of the Cervidae, are very variously developed
among the members of the family. Thus in JElaphodus the
antlers are very small and entirely unbranched. In the Munt-
jacs, Cervulus, the antlers are hardly larger, but they have a
small anterior branch arising from near the pedicel, the " brow
tine." In Oariacus antisiensis only one branch, the brow tine,
is present, but it is nearly as long as the main stem of the antler,
the " beam," In Oa-preolus capraea the beam bears two tines;
in Ceri}us sika three; in C. duvauceli two of the three tines
present bear secondary branches. There are other complications
(some of which are illustrated in Figs. 15 2-15V) of the simple
antler which culminate in the complex antlers with their ex-
panded " palms w of the Elk and the Fallow Deer.
1 Sir Victor Brooke, "On the Claasificattafe.of tihe Cervia*a,w JVoc,
.1878,^,888.                               •                 "i,       ;...'>'>£    •